PUBLICATIONS

Most of TerraMar’s research has been conducted  by its founder, Toni Frohoff, Ph.D., often in collaboration with Terramar’s  affiliates. You can also view our MEDIA page for events and media!

Read below and/or discover more of our work by clicking here on ResearchGate:

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BOOKS

Frohoff, T. In Progress. Wild Wisdom: What Animals and Nature Can Teach Us and Why We Need to Listen.

Dudzinski, K.D. and Frohoff, T. 2010, 2008. Dolphin Mysteries: Unlocking the Secrets of Communication. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Frohoff, T.G. and Peterson, B. (Eds.) 2003. Between Species: Celebrating the Dolphin-Human Bond. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. 361 pages.

BOOK CHAPTERS

Carlson, C. and Frohoff, T. In preparation. Viewing cetaceans: Comparing whale watching with captivity. In Marine Mammals of Costa Rica (J. Rodríguez-Fonseca, A. Acevedo-Gutiérrez, and P. Cubero-Pardo, Eds.).

Oriel, E. and Frohoff, T. 2020. Interspecies Ecocultural Identities in Human-Elephant Cohabitation. Chapter 8 In The Routledge Handbook of Ecocultural Identity (Tema Milstein and Jose’ Castro-Sotomayor, Eds.). 536 pages.

Frohoff, T. And Bekoff., M. 2017. Ethics: Marine Mammals. Pages 338-344 in Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Third Edition (B. Wursig, J.G.M. Thewissen, K.M. Kovacs, Eds.). Academic Press, Cambridge, MA. 1190 pages.

Frohoff, T. and Oriel, E. 2017. Conversing with Dolphins: The Holly Grail of Communication? Pages 575-597 (Chapter 17)  in Biocommunication: Sign-Mediation Interactions Between Cells and Organisms (Richard Gordon and Joseph Seckbach, Eds). World Scientific Publishing, Europe Ltd. London.
Full text available by clicking here.

Abstract: The scientist’s quest for communication with dolphins can be as fraught with mystery and mishaps as an archetypal search for the Holy Grail. At every turn, scientists encounter millennial-old, romantized notions about iconic dolphins teaming with logistical challenges and plodding methodologies struggling to keep pace with, and identify, even a singular, solid thread running through an intricate web of data. When it comes to dolphins, scientific paradigms merge with policy, politics, emotion, and ethics in stimulating, yet sometimes turbid, waters. Our search for clarity through meaningful analysis to adequately (let alone elegantly) explain our findings about dolphins can be both an enviable quest and an onerous duty. The mystery of dolphins continues to beckon us, from before Aristotle to modern-day, inspiring research that expands our concepts of who cetaceans are. We pursue a path beneath the sea, challenging ourselves to press more deeply against our own anthropocentric limits of biocommunication to connect with an aquatically alien, but similarly sentient, species.

Frohoff, T. 2011. Lessons from Dolphins. Pages 135-139 in Whales and Dolphins: Cognition, Culture, Conservation and Human Perceptions (P. Brakes and M.P.Simmonds, Eds.), Earthscan, London, UK.

Frohoff, T. 2008. Marine Animal Welfare (mammals and non-mammals). Pages 515-521 in Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments (Michael Lück, Ed.) CABI Press, Wallingford, UK.

Frohoff, T. 2007. Dolphin-human interactions: from the sea to the swimming pool. Pages 1096-1196 in Encyclopedia of Human-Animal Relationships (Marc Bekoff, Ed.). Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut. 1458 pages.

Dudzinski, K.M. and Frohoff, T.G. 2004. Dolphin Behavior and Communication. Pages 500-510 in Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (M. Bekoff, Ed.). Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut. 1274 pages.

Frohoff, T.G. 2004. Stress in Dolphins. Pages 1158-1164 in Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (M. Bekoff, Ed.). Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut. 1274 pages.

Frohoff, T.G., Dudzinski, K.M. 2004. Dolphins. Page 501 in Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (M. Bekoff, Ed). Greenwood Publishing Group. 1274 pages.

Frohoff, T.G. 2003. The Kindred Wild. Pages 56-71 in Between Species: Celebrating the Dolphin-Human Bond (T.G. Frohoff and B. Peterson, Eds.) Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. 361 pages.

Frohoff, T.G. 2000. The Dolphin’s Smile. Pages 72-73 in The Smile of a Dolphin: The Emotional Lives of Animals (M. Bekoff, Ed.), Discovery Books, New York. 224 pages.

Frohoff, T.G. 1998. Beyond species. Pages 78-84 in Intimate Nature: The Bond Between Women and Animals (B. Peterson, L. Hogan, and D. Metzger, Eds). Ballantine Books, New York. 455 pages.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

In Preparation. Frohoff, T.G. Identification and assessment of behavioral indicators of internal states of captive and free-ranging odontocetes.

In Preparation. Kinsman, C. and Frohoff, T.G. Solitary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Eastern Canada.

Rally, H. and Frohoff, T. 2019. Dolphin Exploitation and Suffering at SeaWorld Parks. Technical Paper. June 5, 2019. Available here.

Oriel, E. and Frohoff, T. 2015. Models of mutual thriving and collaborative co-habitation among human and non-human coastal species inform conservation, education and wellbeing. Paper presented at the Compassionate Conservation Conference, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Oriel, E. and Frohoff, T. 2012. What Three Social Science Theories Applied to Animals and Human-Animal Relations Reveal About Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Conservation. Paper presented at the International Congress of Conservation Biology.  Abstract here.

Marino, L., Frohoff, T. 2011. Towards a New Paradigm of Non-Captive Research on Cetacean Cognition. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24121. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024121. View paper here. ABSTRACT: Contemporary knowledge of impressive neurophysiology and behavior in cetaceans, combined with increasing opportunities for studying free-ranging cetaceans who initiate sociable interaction with humans, are converging to highlight serious ethical considerations and emerging opportunities for a new era of progressive and less-invasive cetacean research. Most research on cetacean cognition has taken place in controlled captive settings, e.g., research labs, marine parks. While these environments afford a certain amount of experimental rigor and logistical control they are fraught with limitations in external validity, impose tremendous stress on the part of the captive animals, and place burdens on populations from which they are often captured. Alternatively, over the past three decades, some researchers have sought to focus their attention on the presence of free-ranging cetacean individuals and groups who have initiated, or chosen to participate in, sociable interactions with humans in the wild. This new approach, defined as Interspecies Collaborative Research between cetacean and human, involves developing novel ways to address research questions under natural conditions and respecting the individual cetacean’s autonomy. It also offers a range of potential direct benefits to the cetaceans studied, as well as allowing for unprecedented cognitive and psychological research on sociable mysticetes. Yet stringent precautions are warranted so as to not increase their vulnerability to human activities or pathogens. When conducted in its best and most responsible form, collaborative research with free-ranging cetaceans can deliver methodological innovation and invaluable new insights while not necessitating the ethical and scientific compromises that characterize research in captivity. Further, it is representative of a new epoch in science in which research is designed so that the participating cetaceans are the direct recipients of the benefits.

Figures:

T. Frohoff and L. Marino. 2010. Interspecies Collaborative Research: Towards a New Ethical Research Paradigm on Cetacean Cognition. Poster presented at the Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of the American Cetacean Society, November 12-14, Monterey. View here

Oriel, E.,  Frohoff, T., Wilson, S. 2010. Individual striving as an ingredient of wellbeing: Human-centered studies shed light on animal wellbeing. Paper presented at Compassionate Conservation Conference, Oxford.

Oriel, E., Frohoff, T., Bradshaw, G., and Kaplin, B. 2009 Integrating the concept of well-being into harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) conservation and captive care. Paper presented at the International Congress for Conservation Biology, Alberta, Canada.

Frohoff, T., Vail, C.S., and Bossley, M. 2006. Preliminary Proceedings of the Workshop on the Research and Management of Solitary, Sociable Odontocetes convened at the16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Diego, California, December 10, 2005. International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, SC/58/13.

Frohoff, T.G., Vail, C.S. and Bossley, M. (Eds.) 2005. Report on the Workshop on Research and Management of Solitary, Sociable Odontocetes. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Diego, California, 10 December 2005.

Kinsman, C.K. and Frohoff, T.G. 2004. Solitary Sociable Beluga Management Options. Unpublished working paper prepared at the request of the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service.

Kinsman, C. and Frohoff, TG. 2003. Solitary, sociable monodontidae in Eastern Canada. Page 32 in Proceedings from the Workshop on Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild: Emerging Issues, Research and Management Needs. 15th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Greensboro, North Carolina, 14 December 2003.

Frohoff, T.G. 2003. Encounters with dolphins: A call for peace between species (cover story). New Times Magazine, January 18(8):7-10.

Frohoff, T.G. 2003. Dolphin swim programs. Page 32 in Proceedings of the Whale Zone Symposium, Zurich, Switzerland, 5-7 July, 2002.

Frohoff, T.G. 2001. Impacts of human interaction on odontocetes: A review and assessment. Page 76-77 in Abstracts from the 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Vancouver, B.C., 28 November – 3 December 2001.

Frohoff, T.G. and Dudzinski, K.M. 2001. Odontocete-human interactions: Practical management. Page 85-87 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild: A Workshop to Discuss Responsible Guidelines and Regulations for Minimizing Disturbance, 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Vancouver, B.C., 28 November, 2001.

Kinsman, C. and Frohoff, T.G. 2001. Whale Stewardship Project: Overview of research and management programs. Pages 92-95 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild: A Workshop to Discuss Responsible Guidelines and Regulations for Minimizing Disturbance, 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Vancouver, B.C., 28 November, 2001.

Kinsman, C., Frohoff, T.G., Rose, N.A., Sheppard, K. 2001. Behavior and occurrence of solitary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Eastern Canada. Page 115 in Abstracts from the 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Vancouver, B.C, 28 November – 3 December 2001.

Frohoff, T.G. 2000. Behavioral Indicators of Stress in Odontocetes During Interactions with Humans: A Preliminary Review and Discussion. International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, SC/52/WW2.

Frohoff, T. 2000. Dolphin emotions: Going beneath the surface. Newsletter of the Puget Sound Chapter of the American Cetacean Society 1(3):3.

Frohoff, T.G. 2000. Stress-related behaviors and risks associated with human-odontocete interactions: A review and assessment. Page 36 in Proceedings from the 7th International Conference of the American Cetacean Society, Monterey, California, 17-19 November 2000.

Frohoff, T.G., Kinsman, C., Rose, N.A., and Sheppard, K. 2000. Preliminary study of the behavior and management of solitary, sociable white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Eastern Canada. International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, SC/52/WW3.

Frohoff, T.G., Kinsman, C., Rose, N.A., and Sheppard, K. 2000. Three occurrences of solitary, sociable white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Eastern Canada. Page 36 in Proceedings from the 7th International Conference of the American Cetacean Society, Monterey, California, 17-19 November 2000.

Dudzinski, K.M., Frohoff, T.G., and Spradlin, T.R. (Eds.) 2000. Report from the “Wild Dolphin Swim Workshop”, convened at the 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, November 1999, Maui, Hawaii.

Frohoff, T.G. 1999. Conducting research on human-dolphin interactions: Captive dolphins, free-ranging dolphins, solitary dolphins, and dolphin groups. Page 20-21 in Report from the “Wild Dolphin Swim Workshop”, convened at the 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (Dudzinski, K., Frohoff, T.G. and Spradlin, T.R., Eds), November 1999, Maui, Hawaii.

Frohoff, T.G. and Kinsman, C. 1999. Unusual occurrence and behavior of a lone, sociable beluga whale in Nova Scotia. Page 62 in Abstracts from the 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Maui, Hawaii, 28 November – 3 December 1999.

Frohoff, T.G., Scheifele, P.M., and Kinsman, C. 1999. Anomalous occurrence and behavior of a solitary beluga whale (Delphinapterus Leucas) in Nova Scotia. Page 165 in Abstracts from the 79th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists, Seattle, Washington, 20-24 June 1999.

Frohoff, T.G. 1997. Assessment of the Maintenance of Two Captive Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina). Unpublished report to the Humane Association, San Rafael, CA. October, 1997.

Frohoff, T.G. 1996. Human-dolphin interactions: Research and management. Journal of the International Society for Anthrozoology 11:5-7.

Frohoff, T.G. 1996. Behavior of Bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and Spotted Dolphins (Stenella frontalis) Relative to Human Interaction. Doctoral Dissertation, The Union Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Frohoff, T.G. 1996. Marine Mammals: Fish declines pinned on pinnipeds. Wildlife Tracks 2(1):12-13.

Frohoff, T.G., Bilgre, B.A., Sanders, A.M., Dudzinski, K.M. 1996. Prediction and management of high-risk behavior in a lone, sociable dolphin. Page 9 in Proceedings from the 21st International Meeting for the Study of Marine Mammals, Chetumal, Mexico, 8-12 April 1996.

Frohoff, T.G. and Dudzinski, K.M. 1996. Interactions between free-ranging spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) and human swimmers: A quantitative examination. Page 16 in Program of the 1996 American Cetacean Society Conference, San Pedro, California, 8-11 November 1996.

Frohoff, T.G. and Frohoff, J.B. (Eds.) 1996. 1987-1990 & 1995-1996. Dolphin Data Base News 1(1) – 3(3) and 1987-1990 & 1996. Marine Mammal Research and Conservation Directory, Dolphin Data Base, Bainbridge Island, Washington.

Frohoff, T.G., Herzing, D.L., and Santos, M. 1995. Report from the workshop, “Human-Interactions with Small Cetaceans: Research and Management”, convened at the 11th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, December 1995, Orlando, FL.

Frohoff, T.G., Packard, J.M. and Benson, R.H. 1996. Variation in whistle type and rate produced by captive dolphins relative to in-water interactions with humans. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99(4):2558.

Dudzinski, K.M., Frohoff, T.G., and Crane, N.L. 1995. Occurrence and behavior of a lone, sociable female dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) off the coast of Belize. Aquatic Mammals 21(2): 149-153.

Frohoff, T.G., Bilgre, B., Sanders, A. and Dudzinski, K.M. 1995. Behavioral analysis of a lone, sociable bottlenose dolphin in Belize. Page 40 in Abstracts, 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, Florida. December, 1995.

Frohoff, T.G. and Packard, J.M. 1995. Interactions between humans and free-ranging and captive bottlenose dolphins. Anthrozoös 8(1):44-54.

Packard, J.M. and Frohoff, T.G. 1995. Variation in captive dolphin vocalizations relative to context of human interaction. Page 87 in Abstracts, 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, Florida. December, 1995.

Frohoff, T.G. 1994. Captive Dolphins and Dolphin Facilities in the Bahamas: A Preliminary Assessment. Report to the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Trade and Industry, Nassau, Bahamas. May, 1994.

Frohoff, T.G. and Packard, J.M. 1994. The behavior of captive dolphins in the context of human interaction. Page 112 in Proceedings of the 31st Annual Animal Behaviour Society Meeting, Seattle, WA 23-28 July 1994.

Frohoff, T.G. 1993. Behavior of Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Humans During Controlled In-Water Interactions. Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Frohoff, T.G. 1993. Research assesses the welfare of dolphins during swim programs. The Latham Letter 14(4):6-8.

Frohoff, T.G. 1993. Review of “Dolphins and their Power to Heal”. Page 7 in D. Anderson, ed. The Interactions Bibliography 4(3).

Frohoff, T.G. and Packard, J.M. 1993. Interactions between dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans during controlled swim programs. Page 50 in Abstracts of the 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Galveston, Texas. November 1993.

Frohoff, T.G. 1992. Predictability of dolphin behavior during controlled in-water interactions with humans at Dolphin Research Center. Report to Dolphin Research Center, Grassy Key, Florida.

Frohoff, T.G., Packard, J.M, and Browning, G.B. 1992. Human interactions with free ranging and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Page 32 in Proceedings from The 6th International Conference on Human Animal Interactions, Montreal, Canada. July 1992.

Dudzinski, K.M., Frohoff, T.G., Shoda, L.K.M., and Sparks, T.D. 1991. The pine warbler song repertoire: A preliminary description and analysis. Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 24(2): 30-38.

Frohoff, T.G., Packard, J.M, and Dudzinski, K.M. 1991. Predictability of dolphin behavior during a controlled “swim with the-dolphin” program. Page 24 in Abstracts of the 9th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Chicago, Illinois. December 1991.

Frohoff, T.G. and Frohoff, J.B. 1989. Marine mammal census on Mass Sighting Day: Report from the Santa Monica Bay region. Unpublished report to the Coastal Dolphin Survey Project, Orange County, California.

Frohoff, T.G. 1988. Preliminary assessment of the occurrence and behavior of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Santa Monica Bay, California. Unpublished report to The Coastal Dolphin Survey Project, Orange County, California.